Saturday, October 3, 2009


What is computer?
Computer is an electronic device or machine which accepts data, process it and send the output to the screen.
Computer is any machine or device which, under the control of a stored program, can accept data in a prescribed form, process the data, and supply the results as information in a specified form.

Functional Part of Computer
An input device accepts data from the outside and convert it to electronic form that computer understands. Examples are:
Keyboard: It has a layout similar to that of a typewriter, but has several extra keys, it is the most widely used input device. It allows to pass information to the computer, by typing in letters and commands on the keyboard.
Mouse: A mouse is an hand operating device which is used to Point and Click items or command objects. A mouse is used with special programs which translates the mouse movements to corresponding actions on the screen. The mouse is useful in two ways. The first is to move the cursor on the and second one is to select what you want the computer to do next.
Touch screen: When it is touched, it senses where is touched, then the user can touch the exact task on the screen and the computer carries out the process.
Scanner: This is also an input device that is used to scan documents or pictures into the computer.
• Digital camera/ Phones: These can accept the likes of pictures, audios, videos etc. Phone can serve as both input and output device.

An output device does the opposite of the input device, it converts data from an electronic form inside the computer to a form that can be accepted outside the computer. Example includes
• Monitor: It is like a television which display visuals on it. But actually they work differently. It allows us to see the result of the work or command we gave the computer to perform.
• Printers: They are very essential part of the computer because they allow to perform the hard copies of our outputs. i.e. Permanent print out on papers.
• Speakers: It’s an output device that allows to listen to sounds from the computer

The memory is used to store data temporarily prior to or during processing. We have two types of Memory. RAM (Random Access Memory),
ROM (Read Only Memory)

It store information in the computer permanently, and it can be recalled any time it is needed.
We have two types, the internal storage device example includes HARD DISK and external storage device example includes DISKETTE, FLASH DRIVE.

The Processor or Central Processing Unit is the “heart” of the computer. It has the capability to carry out logical and arithmetic instructions, interprets and executes program instructions, and communicates with the other components of the computer system.

At the end of this Chapter, we should be able to:
1. Learn how to work with mouse
2. Understand the desktop environment

Left Click Right Click

Mouse: It is an integral part of the computer, which is used to position the cursor, navigate through documents, and enter commands and more. It has left and right button as well as scroll button at the middle.
Using the Mouse: As defined in the previous chapter, Mouse and Keyboard are example of input device. The mouse especially requires some skills in using it. Some of its functions include:
Clicking: It simply means placing or pointing the cusor on an item such as text word paragraph, file etc. and then pressing the left button and releasing it.
Right Clicking: This is using the third finger to press the right button once, and list of events that can be done comes out and then select it by clicking.
Double Clicking: This is the pressing of the left button at a very fast speed. It is used to open folders etc.
Dragging: It is a way of selecting an item and moving it away from its original position. It is done by holding the mouse down and holding the left button of the mouse.
Highlighting: It is also done the same way as dragging is done but it is used for text. It is used to select text that wants to be edited.

DESKTOP: This is the background that is seen immediately after the computer finishes booting.

Start Task bar Background

Menu bar Toolbar Scrollbar

Bars on the Desktop
Windows desktop provides bars on the desktop to represent a collective group of features. Some examples are:
• The Title bar – It displays the name of the window.
• The Task Bar – This is found at the bottom of the desktop. It contains the start button, the Quick launch toolbar and the task bar tray (Which contains the clock and other icons.)
• The Status Bar – This is found at the bottom of the window. It provides information about the current state of what is being viewed on the window and any other contextual information.
• The Toolbars – It provides a quick way to access task. Most toolbar correspond to a menu command.
• The Scroll bar – If a window is not enough to display all the information, a scroll bar appears at the side (either vertically or horizontally) of the window. It can either be dragged or clicked.
• The Menu bar – It is below the the title bar, it displays important menu like File, Edit, Insert, View, Help etc.
Program Icons
They are pictures that represent programs in a computer, they are mostly used in Windows application. They beautify the computer serves as shortcuts in launching an application.

Starting a Program:
Click Start button or press the Window key from the keyboard
Scroll or Click the “All Programs” then locate the program you want. Note if arrow button shows, it means that it contains more program inside it.

How to create a program shortcut on the desktop
i. Click start button
ii. Scroll over the All Programs button and select the Application
iii. R Click and select send To Desktop.
Opening a Document
There are several ways to open documents in windows, these are:
Opening a Document From Within a Program
i. On the file menu, click open
ii. To open a document in a different folder, click the arrow next to the look-in box, and then click the disk that contains the folder.
iii. Click the folder that contains the document to be opened, and then click open. One may have to scroll to see more folders.
iv. Click the document to be opened and then open.
Opening a Document Using the Document Menu
i. Click the start button ,and then point to document
ii. Click the name of the document to be opened
iii. The document opens ,and a button for the document appears on the task bar

Opening a Document Using find command
i. Click the start button and then on the start menu point to find or search
ii. Double click its icon to open and then follow the proceedings

One can reduce (minimize) or enlarge (maximize) programs and document windows to make a work easier .a window could be minimized to temporarily move it out of the way ,but keep it active for later use .even so ,a window could be maximized to see more of its contents on screen.

A menu is a group of related commands that tells window what to do. Many commands are organized in logical groups. For example, all the commands relating to starting a work in windows are on the start menu
A. Using mouse ¬¬:
i. click on the menu title in the menu bar
ii. click a particular command of choice
B. Using Keyboard ¬¬:
i. Press Alt to activate the menu bar of the active window
ii. Use the arrow keys to highlight the menu title that is needed and then press the Enter button
Press the key that corresponds to the underlined letter of the menu, for example press E

Arranging Windows on the Desktop
i. Open multiple windows on the desktop, then point to a blank area on the taskbar and then Right click to reveal the shortcut menu.
ii. From the shortcut menu, choose cascade to display the window in an orderly manner
iii. To display all open windows in equal sizes, R click the taskbar and choose Tile horizontal or Tile Vertically

Closing a Window
i. A window is closed by clicking the close (X) button at the upper right corner of the windows title bar.
ii. Another way is by R Clicking on the window in the taskbar, then select close.
iii. Another way us by pressing Alt F4 from the keyboard.

Procedure in storing documents into external storage device
eg Flash drive.
i. Insert the flash into its appropriate location
ii. Open the document to be transfer
iii. Click File or File icon on tab menu
iv. Select Save As
v. Browse to the location of the flash
vi. Click Save.

Shutting down the Computer
If the power to a computer is turned off before it is properly shut down, it could lead to loss of valuable data or damage to an open file.These are the proper steps needs to be taken.
i. Before shutting down, close all the open programs.
ii. Open the start menu and click Shut down, or follow a pointed arrow and click Shut down depending on the type of operating system being used.

What is a File?
Files are defined as the collection of information with unique names. They are unique and cannot contain another file.
What is a Folder?
A folder is a computer purse that is used to store data.
Creating Folders
A common reason for creating folder is to store documents created so that document files will not be scattered among window program files.

 With window explorer
i. Open the start menu and choose programs, then Windows explorer.
ii. Highlight the location for the new folder
iii. Select File New Folder. A folder icon named new folder appears at the bottom of the file list.
iv. Rename the folder
v. Press Enter

 With My Computer
i. In My computer, open the icon or the folder in which the folder is to be created
ii. Select File, New. Windows create a new folder icon.
iii. Type the name of the file and press Enter.
 From Desktop
i. Right click anywhere on the Desktop
ii. Select New, Folder.
Deleting Folders
i. Click on the folder to be deleted
ii. Press Delete key on the keyboard
iii. Click Yes on the dialog box that opens.
i. Right Click on the folder
ii. Select Delete
iii. Click Yes on the dialog box.

Using the Recycle Bin

When Files or folders are deleted from the computer they are dropped into the Recycle bin for which can still be restored if the need arises. But once the Recycle bin itself has been emptied, the file or the folder cannot be used again.
To Restore File or Folder
i. Double click on the Recycle bin icon on the Desktop
ii. Right click the file or the folder
iii. Select Restore.

Emptying/Purging the Recycle bin
i. Right click on the Icon
ii. Select Emptying Recycle bin.

Installing / Un- Installing a Program
Installation means adding a particular program which is not on your computer before. To install a program, these are the steps needed to be taken.( A times some program auto run by themselves.)
1. Insert the CD, Diskette, Flash etc that contains the program into its appropriate location
2. Double click the My computer Icon
3. Select and double click on the icon that represents the storage device eg CD ROM
4. The application starts installation or browse further till you locate the program
5. Follow the Dialog boxes that appear as the installation progresses.

Un Installation means removing a particular program from the computer. These are the steps involved in the process:
1. Click on Start button
2. Click on the Control Panel tab on the menu pop up
3. Locate Program and Features button, then double click
4. All programs that are available on your system appears then double click on the program or Right click
5. Select un install.
Creating Username and Password
i. Click on Start button
ii. Click on the Control Panel tab on the menu pop up
iii. Locate User account button, then double click
iv. Click on the task you want.

Software can be defined as a set of computer programs; instruction that cause the hardware – the machines- to do work. Software as a whole can be divided into a number of categories based on the types of work done by programs. The two primary software categories are Systems software and Application software.
System Software: are usually written by computer manufacturer and are directly responsible for ensuring optimal utilization of resources such as processor, memories, peripheral etc. Their function is to make it easier to use application programs and hardware resources. Eg Operating systems, Utility and Service programs.
Application Software: These are programs designed for specific computer application. They are produced by computer manufacturers or supplied by software firms. Examples are given below.

Word processing Ms Word Creation, editing, formatting and printing text.
Spreadsheet Ms Excel Performing mathematical and statistical calculation.
Publishing PageMaker Creating and design of graphics.
Drawing and design Corel draw, AutoCAD Design of image and structures.

COMPUTER DISEASES; they include the virus, worms, Trojans.
Computer virus is a program written to alter the way computer operates without the permission or the knowledge of its owner. E.g.

These are programs also written to detect, remove and prevent computer viruses. Example includes Norton, McAfee Kerspeskev etc.

Protection against Virus infection
There is need for precautionary motive in the handling of computer viruses, these are some of the motives to be taken.
Know what files are stored on the hard drive
Do not allow un trusted storage device to be used on your computer
Monitor the general and overall usage of your computer
Keep your antivirus updated always
Do not visit un trusted website
Graphic email attached should not be open.

 Understanding word processing
 To make the reader acquainted with Ms-word
 To make the user skilful using ms word
Word processing simply means using a computer to enter ,edit ,format, and print text .
Basic features of word processing:
Easy correction :in situation where there is error ,it is possible and easy to make corrections easily without retyping the whole document unlike in the case of type writers the whole document is retyped ‘
Easy revision: when it becomes necessary to revise a document, letter it’s quite simple and if needs be you can interchange paragraphs and the revised document or letter can be printed without retyping.
Multiple copies of document: letters or documents typed can be available in multiples if the needs arise.
Spell check: this is used when words are not typed in correctly ,but with the aid of an in-built vocabulary or list of words, it helps in making such corrections easily by suggesting a word the best fits for the in-correct word mis-spelled
Saving documents: documents are saved either in the hard disk of the computer or other storing devices such as flash drives disk plates, diskettes for feature use.
Several font styles :this include making your typed letter or document in styles eg italics ,bold ,or in preferred font size
Fixing pictures :some document needs pictures to be inserted in this case it is possible with the aid of word processor word processor to fix in the desired pictures
Margin setting :the word processor allows you to automatically set page margin of your document
Automatic page numbering
Headers and footers
Word processor can be defined as any windows application program that helps us to perform our basic office task with great ease these include: typing filling storing, printing, scanning etc.
Examples of word processors include:
 Microsoft word (Ms-Word)
 Microsoft Excel
 Power Point
 Corel draw
Microsoft word is a word processor capable of providing options such as typing, editing, spell checking, formatting, setting, storing and Printing office documents where necessary.
Basic features of Microsoft word:
Microsoft word has all the basic components of a window i.e. title bar, menu bar ,scroll bars ,control menu box ,minimize , maximize and restore button .they function the same way as that of windows applications
The mouse or keyboard can be used to execute commands in Microsoft word in the same way as in other windows applications
Microsoft word allows you t open nine documents at the same time (enabled if your computer has enough memory available)
The Microsoft word displays a set of command icons below and top of the screen in what is called the power bar.
Microsoft word gives shortcut keys which are either single stroke key or series of key strokes.

Starting Microsoft Word:
When Microsoft Word is started, a new document window opens, ready to begin typing the document.
Start All Programs Microsoft Office Microsoft Word
Double Click on Microsoft Word Icon.

Working with Basic Document Operation.
Some certain features are used most often when we work frequently on Microsoft word, they include:
1. Opening a Document
2. Saving a document
3. Closing a document
4. Renaming Word document
5. Printing Word document
6. Navigate through Word document.
Opening of MS Word document (Ctrl + O)
The open command is used to open an existing file, folder or document. Other ways to achieve this task include:
Menu Bar
a) Click the File tab or Icon from the Menu bar to display the Menu list
b) Click the Open option to display the open dialog box.

c) Select the location of the Word document
d) Press the Open button to open the document.
Using the shortcut (Ctrl + O)
a) By pressing the key on the keyboard, it shows the dialog box
b) Select the document you want
c) Click on open

Saving MS Word document
There are two ways in which we can save document in MS Word application they are the “Save As” and the “Save”
The “Save As” command
This is used when we just want to save a document into a particular location and also to name it the name we want.

1. Click on the File tab or File Icon, and click Save As
2. Select the format you want it to be saved
3. Type the name you want ad click Save.
We can also use the command F12

The “Save” Command
This is used to save the document frequently as it is been typed. It is mostly used for the existing documents.
1. Click on File tab and click Save
We can also use the command (Ctrl + S)

Closing the MS Word Document
The Close command is used to close a file or document after use.
1. Click File on the Menu bar to display a drop down list
2. Select Exit from the drop down list.
Press Ctrl + W on the Keyboard, then the window is closed.

Page setting of MS Word Document

Click the Page Layout tab from the Menu bar
Select the type of Page format you want.

The major tools used in Page Layout Menu include:
The margins tab allows to set the margin of your document, the orientation of the paper to be used, preview setting and multiple pages option. Unless being an user is good to leave the settings at its default.

Paper Tab or Size
This tab gives us the option of selecting the size of the paper we want to use.
Click Page Layout tab

Select the size you want by clicking it.

Printing MS Word Document (Ctrl + P)
1. To print a document, click on the File tab or Icon
2. Select Print option on the menu list
3. Select the printer to be used
4. Specify the range to which it should be printed (All or Current page).

Navigating through MS Word Document
There are some shortcut keys and mouse movement that helps us to quickly and freely move around in MS Word document. Some of the keys include.
Cursor Movement Shortcut Keys
To move to the beginning of line HOME
To move to the end of the line END
To move to the top of the document Ctrl + Home
Go to End of the document Ctrl + End
To move a space forward Space bar
Select from cursor to the end of the line Shift + End
Select from cursor to the beginning of line Shift + Home

Working with Text
1. At the end of this topic we will be able to:
2. Manipulate text easily in MS Word package
3. Develop quality sense of document presentation.
There are some commands, if requested affect the way text appears. A good understanding of these commands will go a long way to determine the way we achieve our tasks. Below are some of these commands and their corresponding functions.
1. Font face menu
2. Font size menu
3. Font colour tool
4. Font style tools
5. Text case
6. Alignment.
Font face menu
The Font face menu displays the list of available fonts that we can format our text with; it is located at the formatting tool bar.

On the Tool bar, select the type of the font you wish.
Using Shortcut keys
1. Make MS Word Window active
2. Press Ctrl + Shift + F at once
3. Scroll to the new Font you like.
Font size menu
The font size menu allows us to format the font size of the whole document or paragraph by either specifying a new font size, which must be an integer number or by selecting a predefined font on the list.

1. Select the paragraph, words or letter that you want to change its size
2. Click the font size you want on the menu.
Using the shortcut keys.
1. Make the MS Word window active
2. Press Ctrl + Shift + P at once.
3. Type the font value you wish.

The Font Colour Tool “A”
This allows to change the colour of our text, by giving option to choose from. It is usually located on the Draw toolbar

Changing Font colour of text.
Click the arrow of the tool in the draw toolbar to display the colour palette

Choose the new colour from the popup menu.
Font style Tools
There are some frequently user commands that change the font style of the text. They are the Bold, Italics, and Underline tools.
Bold Tool
1. Select the text you want to bold
2. Click on the Bold icon B in the formatting toolbar.
Italic Tool
1. Select the text you want to change to italic form
2. Click on the Italic icon I in the toolbar
Underline Tool
Select the text you want to Underline
Click on the Underline icon U in the toolbar

Font Effects
There are many effects that can be done to your text. Font effects make text to be more understanding and more presentable. Example of the effects include: Strikethrough, Superscript, Subscript, Engrave, Hidden etc.
Press Ctrl + Shift + P at once and have the list.
Select the effect you want.
Text Alignment
They are mainly four, they are
Left Alignment (Ctrl + L). It aligns text to the left
Right Alignment (Ctrl + R) It aligns text to the right
Center Alignment (Ctrl + E) It centralizes the text
Justify (Ctrl + J) It aligns text to both left and right margin.

Left Center Right
The general procedure is that select the text and click on the alignment you want.

Numbering and Bulleting.
Highlight the text you want to number or bullet
Click on the numbering icon or bulleting icon.

Working with Graphics
Graphics can be imported into MS Word document, this is simply achieved by browsing to the location of the file. These are the steps to be taken:
1. Place the cursor to where the graphics is to be placed
2. Click on the Insert menu on the Menu bar
3. Scroll or click the picture tab
4. Browse to the picture you want
5. Click Ok

Inserting picture from scanner or camera using the insert menu
1. Place the cursor to where the graphics is to be placed
2. Click on the Insert menu on the Menu bar
3. Scroll or click the picture tab
4. Select scanner and camera option from the menu list select the device you want to get the image from using the device name list
1. Select image from the device
2. Click ok
Adding Analytical aiding diagrams to Ms Word using insert menu
These are diagrams that have special meaning to the document, they save time of self construction.
1. Place your cursor to the position where you want to insert the chart
2. Click on insert menu
3. Select SmartArt tab

4. Select the diagram type and click OK

Inserting Header and Footer
Click on the insert menu
Select the Header or the Footer icon
Type the text you want.